2nd Edition

Electric Generators Handbook - Two Volume Set




ISBN 9781498723411
Published October 8, 2015 by CRC Press
1100 Pages 803 B/W Illustrations

USD $310.00

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Book Description

Electric Generators Handbook, Second Edition: Two-Volume Set supplies state-of-the-art tools necessary to design, validate, and deploy the right power generation technologies to fulfill tomorrow's complex energy needs.

The first volume, Synchronous Generators, explores large- and medium-power synchronous generator topologies, steady state, modeling, transients, control, design, and testing. Numerous case studies, worked-out examples, sample results, and illustrations highlight the concepts. Fully revised and updated to reflect the last decade’s worth of progress in the field, the Second Edition adds coverage of high-power wind generators with fewer or no PMs, PM-assisted DC-excited salient pole synchronous generators, autonomous synchronous generators’ control, line switching parameter identification for isolated grids, synthetic back-to-back load testing with inverter supply, and more.

The second volume, Variable Speed Generators, provides extensive coverage of variable speed generators in distributed generation and renewable energy applications around the world. Numerous design and control examples illustrate the exposition. Fully revised and updated to reflect the last decade’s worth of progress in the field, the Second Edition adds material on doubly fed induction generator control under unbalanced voltage sags and nonlinear loads, interior permanent magnet claw-pole-alternator systems, high power factor Vernier PM generators, PM-assisted reluctance synchronous motors/generators for electric hybrid vehicles, and more.

Table of Contents

Electric Energy and Electric Generators
Introduction
Major Energy Sources
Limitations of Electric Power Generation
Electric Power Generation
From Electric Generators to Electric Loads
Summary
References

Principles of Electric Generators
Three Types of Electric Generators
Synchronous Generators
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators
Homopolar Synchronous Generator
Induction Generator
Wound-Rotor Doubly Fed Induction Generator
Parametric Generators
Electric Generator Applications
High-Power Wind Generators
Summary
References

Prime Movers
Introduction
Steam Turbines
Steam Turbine Modeling
Speed Governors for Steam Turbines
Gas Turbines
Diesel Engines
Stirling Engines
Hydraulic Turbines
Wind Turbines
Summary
References

Large- and Medium-Power Synchronous Generators: Topologies and Steady State
Introduction
Construction Elements
Excitation Magnetic Field
Two-Reaction Principle of Synchronous Generators
Armature Reaction Field and Synchronous Reactances
Equations for Steady State with Balanced Load
Phasor Diagram
Inclusion of Core Losses in the Steady-State Model
Autonomous Operation of Synchronous Generators
SG Operation at Power Grid (in Parallel)
Unbalanced Load Steady-State Operation
Measuring Xd, Xq, Z, Z0
Phase-to-Phase Short Circuit
Synchronous Condenser
PM-Assisted DC-Excited Salient Pole Synchronous Generators
Multiphase Synchronous Machine Inductances via Winding Function Method
Summary
References

Synchronous Generators: Modeling for Transients
Introduction
Phase-Variable Model
dq Model
Per Unit (P.U.) dq Model
Steady State via the dq Model
General Equivalent Circuits
Magnetic Saturation Inclusion in the dq Model
Operational Parameters
Standstill Time-Domain Response Provoked Transients
Standstill Frequency Response
Simplified Models for Power System Studies
Mechanical Transients
Small Disturbance Electromechanical Transients
Large Disturbance Transients Modeling
Finite-Element SG Modeling
SG Transient Modeling for Control Design
Summary
References

Control of Synchronous Generators in Power Systems
Introduction
Speed Governing Basics
Time Response of Speed Governors
Automatic Generation Control
Time Response of Speed (Frequency) and Power Angle
Voltage and Reactive Power Control Basics
Automatic Voltage Regulation Concept
Exciters
Exciter’s Modeling
Basic AVRs
Underexcitation Voltage
Power System Stabilizers
Coordinated AVR-PSS and Speed Governor Control
FACTS-Added Control of SG
Subsynchronous Oscillations
Subsynchronous Resonance
Note on Autonomous Synchronous Generators’ Control
Summary
References

Design of Synchronous Generators
Introduction
Specifying Synchronous Generators for Power Systems
Output Power Coefficient and Basic Stator Geometry
Number of Stator Slots
Design of Stator Winding
Design of Stator Core
Salient: Pole Rotor Design
Damper Cage Design
Design of Cylindrical Rotors
Open-Circuit Saturation Curve
On-Load Excitation mmf F1n
Inductances and Resistances
Excitation Winding Inductances
Damper Winding Parameters
Solid Rotor Parameters
SG Transient Parameters and Time Constants
Electromagnetic Field Time Harmonics
Slot Ripple Time Harmonics
Losses and Efficiency
Exciter Design Issues
Optimization Design Issues
Generator/Motor Issues
Summary
References

Testing of Synchronous Generators
Acceptance Testing
Testing for Performance (Saturation Curves, Segregated Losses, and Efficiency)
Excitation Current under Load and Voltage Regulation
Need for Determining Electrical Parameters
Per Unit Values
Tests for Parameters under Steady State
Tests to Estimate the Subtransient and Transient Parameters
Transient and Subtransient Parameters from d and q Axis Flux Decay Test at Standstill
Subtransient Reactances from Standstill Single-Frequency AC Tests
Standstill Frequency Response Tests
Online Identification of SG Parameters
Summary
References

Wound-Rotor Induction Generators: Steady State
Introduction
Construction Elements
Steady-State Equations
Equivalent Circuit
Phasor Diagrams
Operation at the Power Grid
Autonomous Operation of WRIGs
Operation of WRIGs in the Brushless Exciter Mode
Losses and Efficiency of WRIGs
Summary
References

Wound-Rotor Induction Generators: Transients and Control
Introduction
WRIG Phase Coordinate Model
Space-Phasor Model of WRIG
Space-Phasor Equivalent Circuits and Diagrams
Approaches to WRIG Transients
Static Power Converters for WRIGs
Vector Control of WRIG at Power Grid
Direct Power Control of WRIG at Power Grid
Independent Vector Control of Positive and Negative Sequence Currents
Motion-Sensorless Control
Vector Control in Stand-Alone Operation
Self-Starting, Synchronization, and Loading at the Power Grid
Voltage and Current Low-Frequency Harmonics of WRIG
Ride-Through Control of DFIG under Unbalanced Voltage Sags
Stand-Alone DFIG Control under Unbalanced Nonlinear Loads
Summary
References

Wound-Rotor Induction Generators: Design and Testing
Introduction
Design Specifications: An Example
Stator Design
Rotor Design
Magnetization Current
Reactances and Resistances
Electrical Losses and Efficiency
Testing of WRIGs
Summary
References

Self-Excited Induction Generators
Introduction
Principle of Cage-Rotor Induction Machine
Self-Excitation: A Qualitative View
Steady-State Performance of Three-Phase SEIGs
Performance Sensitivity Analysis
Pole Changing SEIGs for Variable Speed Operation
Unbalanced Operation of Three-Phase SEIGs
One Phase Open at Power Grid
Three-Phase SEIG with Single-Phase Output
Two-Phase SEIGs with Single-Phase Output
Three-Phase SEIG Transients
Parallel Connection of SEIGs
Direct Connection to Grid Transients in Cage-Rotor Induction Generators
More on Power Grid Disturbance Transients in Cage-Rotor Induction Generators
Summary
References

Stator-Converter-Controlled Induction Generators
Introduction
Grid-Connected SCIGs: The Control System
Grid Connection and Four-Quadrant Operation of SCIGs
Stand-Alone Operation of SCIG
Parallel Operation of SCIGs
Static Capacitor Exciter Stand-Alone IG for Pumping Systems
Operation of SCIGs with DC Voltage-Controlled Output
Stand-Alone SCIG with AC Output and Low Rating PWM Converter
Dual Stator Winding for Grid Applications
Twin Stator Winding SCIG with 50% Rating Inverter and Diode Rectifier
Dual Stator Winding IG with Nested Cage Rotor
Summary
References

Automotive Claw-Pole-Rotor Generator Systems
Introduction
Construction and Principle
Magnetic Equivalent Circuit Modeling
Three-Dimensional Finite Element Method Modeling
Losses, Efficiency, and Power Factor
Design Improvement Steps
Lundell Starter/Generator for Hybrid Vehicles
IPM Claw-Pole Alternator System for More Vehicle Braking Energy Recuperation: A Case Study
Summary
References

Induction Starter/Alternators for Electric Hybrid Vehicles
Electric Hybrid Vehicle Configuration
Essential Specifications
Topology Aspects of Induction Starter/Alternator
ISA Space-Phasor Model and Characteristics
Vector Control of ISA
DTFC of ISA
ISA Design Issues for Variable Speed
Summary
References

Permanent-Magnet-Assisted Reluctance Synchronous Starter/Alternators for Electric Hybrid Vehicles
Introduction
Topologies of PM-RSM
Finite Element Analysis
dq Model of PM-RSM
Steady-State Operation at No Load and Symmetric Short Circuit
Design Aspects for Wide Speed Range Constant Power Operation
Power Electronics for PM-RSM for Automotive Applications
Control of PM-RSM for EHV
State Observers without Signal Injection for Motion Sensorless Control
Signal Injection Rotor Position Observers
Initial and Low-Speed Rotor Position Tracking
50/100 kW, 1350–7000 rpm (600 Nm Peak Torque, 40 kg) PM-Assisted Reluctance Synchronous Motor/Generator for HEV: A Case Study
Summary
References

Switched Reluctance Generators and Their Control
Introduction
Practical Topologies and Principles of Operation
SRG(M) Modeling
Flux/Current/Position Curves
Design Issues
PWM Converters for SRGs
Control of SRG(M)s
Direct Torque Control of SRG(M)
Rotor Position and Speed Observers for Motion-Sensorless Control
Output Voltage Control in SRG
Double Stator SRG with Segmented Rotor
Summary
References

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Systems
Introduction
Practical Configurations and Their Characterization
Air Gap Field Distribution, emf, and Torque
Stator Core Loss Modeling
Circuit Model
Circuit Model of PMSG with Shunt Capacitors and AC Load
Circuit Model of PMSG with Diode Rectifier Load
Utilization of Third Harmonic for PMSG with Diode Rectifiers
Autonomous PMSGs with Controlled Constant Speed and AC Load
Grid-Connected Variable-Speed PMSG System
PM Genset with Multiple Outputs
Super-High-Speed PM Generators: Design Issues
Super-High-Speed PM Generators: Power Electronics Control Issues
Design of a 42 Vdc Battery-Controlled-Output PMSG System
Methods for Testing PMSGs
Grid to Stand-Alone Transition Motion-Sensorless Dual-Inverter Control of PMSG with Asymmetrical Grid Voltage Sags and Harmonics Filtering: A Case Study
Note on Medium-Power Vehicular Electric Generator Systems
Summary
References

Transverse Flux and Flux Reversal Permanent Magnet Generator Systems
Introduction
Three-Phase Transverse Flux Machine: Magnetic Circuit Design
TFM: The dq Model and Steady State
Three-Phase FR-PM Generator: Magnetic and Electric Circuit Design
High Power Factor Vernier PM Generators
Summary
References

Linear Motion Alternators
Introduction
LMA Principle of Operation
PM-LMA with Coil Mover
Multipole LMA with Coil Plus Iron Mover
PM-Mover LMAs
Tubular Homopolar PM Mover Single-Coil LMA
Flux Reversal LMA with Mover PM Flux Concentration
PM-LMAs with Iron Mover
Flux Reversal PM-LMA Tubular Configuration
Control of PM-LMAs
Progressive-Motion LMAs for Maglevs with Active Guideway
Summary
References

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Author(s)

Biography

Ion Boldea is a professor of electrical engineering at the University Politehnica Timişoara, Romania. A life fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Professor Boldea has worked, published, lectured, and consulted extensively on the theory, design, and control of linear and rotary electric motors and generators for more than 40 years.

Reviews

"... condenses in two volumes the most advanced knowledge on electric generators available in the technical literature. The presentation is clear and progressive. New perspectives are analyzed."
—Fabrizio Marignetti, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Italy

"A comprehensive handbook of electric generators that is ideal for graduate-level machines courses."
—Pourya Shamsi, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, USA

"... covers the whole range of electric generators, which is unique, and at the same time discusses how to use them with power electronics technology, making the book really worthwhile to read."
—Frede Blaabjerg, Aalborg University, Denmark