# Electric Generators Handbook - Two Volume Set

## Preview

## Book Description

**Electric Generators Handbook, Second Edition: Two-Volume Set** supplies state-of-the-art tools necessary to design, validate, and deploy the right power generation technologies to fulfill tomorrow's complex energy needs.

The first volume, *Synchronous Generators*, explores large- and medium-power synchronous generator topologies, steady state, modeling, transients, control, design, and testing. Numerous case studies, worked-out examples, sample results, and illustrations highlight the concepts. Fully revised and updated to reflect the last decade’s worth of progress in the field, the *Second Edition* adds coverage of high-power wind generators with fewer or no PMs, PM-assisted DC-excited salient pole synchronous generators, autonomous synchronous generators’ control, line switching parameter identification for isolated grids, synthetic back-to-back load testing with inverter supply, and more.

The second volume, *Variable Speed Generators*, provides extensive coverage of variable speed generators in distributed generation and renewable energy applications around the world. Numerous design and control examples illustrate the exposition. Fully revised and updated to reflect the last decade’s worth of progress in the field, the *Second Edition* adds material on doubly fed induction generator control under unbalanced voltage sags and nonlinear loads, interior permanent magnet claw-pole-alternator systems, high power factor Vernier PM generators, PM-assisted reluctance synchronous motors/generators for electric hybrid vehicles, and more.

## Table of Contents

**Electric Energy and Electric Generators**Introduction

**Major Energy Sources**

**Limitations of Electric Power Generation**

**Electric Power Generation**

**From Electric Generators to Electric Loads**

**Summary**

**References**

**Principles of Electric Generators**Three Types of Electric Generators

**Synchronous Generators**

**Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators**

**Homopolar Synchronous Generator**

**Induction Generator**

**Wound-Rotor Doubly Fed Induction Generator**

**Parametric Generators**

**Electric Generator Applications**

**High-Power Wind Generators**

**Summary**

**References**

**Prime Movers**Introduction

**Steam Turbines**

**Steam Turbine Modeling**

**Speed Governors for Steam Turbines**

**Gas Turbines**

**Diesel Engines**

**Stirling Engines**

**Hydraulic Turbines**

**Wind Turbines**

**Summary**

**References**

**Large- and Medium-Power Synchronous Generators: Topologies and Steady State**Introduction

**Construction Elements**

**Excitation Magnetic Field**

**Two-Reaction Principle of Synchronous Generators**

**Armature Reaction Field and Synchronous Reactances**

**Equations for Steady State with Balanced Load**

**Phasor Diagram**

**Inclusion of Core Losses in the Steady-State Model**

**Autonomous Operation of Synchronous Generators**

**SG Operation at Power Grid (in Parallel)**

**Unbalanced Load Steady-State Operation**

**Measuring X**

*, X*

_{d}*, Z*

_{q}*, Z*

_{−}

_{0}**Phase-to-Phase Short Circuit**

**Synchronous Condenser**

**PM-Assisted DC-Excited Salient Pole Synchronous Generators**

**Multiphase Synchronous Machine Inductances via Winding Function Method**

**Summary**

**References**

**Synchronous Generators: Modeling for Transients**Introduction

**Phase-Variable Model**

*dq*Model

**Per Unit (P.U.)**

*dq*Model

**Steady State via the**

*dq*Model

**General Equivalent Circuits**

**Magnetic Saturation Inclusion in the**

*dq*Model

**Operational Parameters**

**Standstill Time-Domain Response Provoked Transients**

**Standstill Frequency Response**

**Simplified Models for Power System Studies**

**Mechanical Transients**

**Small Disturbance Electromechanical Transients**

**Large Disturbance Transients Modeling**

**Finite-Element SG Modeling**

**SG Transient Modeling for Control Design**

**Summary**

**References**

**Control of Synchronous Generators in Power Systems**Introduction

**Speed Governing Basics**

**Time Response of Speed Governors**

**Automatic Generation Control**

**Time Response of Speed (Frequency) and Power Angle**

**Voltage and Reactive Power Control Basics**

**Automatic Voltage Regulation Concept**

**Exciters**

**Exciter’s Modeling**

**Basic AVRs**

**Underexcitation Voltage**

**Power System Stabilizers**

**Coordinated AVR-PSS and Speed Governor Control**

**FACTS-Added Control of SG**

**Subsynchronous Oscillations**

**Subsynchronous Resonance**

**Note on Autonomous Synchronous Generators’ Control**

**Summary**

**References**

**Design of Synchronous Generators**Introduction

**Specifying Synchronous Generators for Power Systems**

**Output Power Coefficient and Basic Stator Geometry**

**Number of Stator Slots**

**Design of Stator Winding**

**Design of Stator Core**

**Salient: Pole Rotor Design**

**Damper Cage Design**

**Design of Cylindrical Rotors**

**Open-Circuit Saturation Curve**

**On-Load Excitation mmf F**

_{1n}**Inductances and Resistances**

**Excitation Winding Inductances**

**Damper Winding Parameters**

**Solid Rotor Parameters**

**SG Transient Parameters and Time Constants**

**Electromagnetic Field Time Harmonics**

**Slot Ripple Time Harmonics**

**Losses and Efficiency**

**Exciter Design Issues**

**Optimization Design Issues**

**Generator/Motor Issues**

**Summary**

**References**

**Testing of Synchronous Generators**Acceptance Testing

**Testing for Performance (Saturation Curves, Segregated Losses, and Efficiency)**

**Excitation Current under Load and Voltage Regulation**

**Need for Determining Electrical Parameters**

**Per Unit Values**

**Tests for Parameters under Steady State**

**Tests to Estimate the Subtransient and Transient Parameters**

**Transient and Subtransient Parameters from**

*d*and

*q*Axis Flux Decay Test at Standstill

**Subtransient Reactances from Standstill Single-Frequency AC Tests**

**Standstill Frequency Response Tests**

**Online Identification of SG Parameters**

**Summary**

**References**

**Wound-Rotor Induction Generators: Steady State**Introduction

**Construction Elements**

**Steady-State Equations**

**Equivalent Circuit**

**Phasor Diagrams**

**Operation at the Power Grid**

**Autonomous Operation of WRIGs**

**Operation of WRIGs in the Brushless Exciter Mode**

**Losses and Efficiency of WRIGs**

**Summary**

**References**

**Wound-Rotor Induction Generators: Transients and Control**Introduction

**WRIG Phase Coordinate Model**

**Space-Phasor Model of WRIG**

**Space-Phasor Equivalent Circuits and Diagrams**

**Approaches to WRIG Transients**

**Static Power Converters for WRIGs**

**Vector Control of WRIG at Power Grid**

**Direct Power Control of WRIG at Power Grid**

**Independent Vector Control of Positive and Negative Sequence Currents**

**Motion-Sensorless Control**

**Vector Control in Stand-Alone Operation**

**Self-Starting, Synchronization, and Loading at the Power Grid**

**Voltage and Current Low-Frequency Harmonics of WRIG**

**Ride-Through Control of DFIG under Unbalanced Voltage Sags**

**Stand-Alone DFIG Control under Unbalanced Nonlinear Loads**

**Summary**

**References**

**Wound-Rotor Induction Generators: Design and Testing**Introduction

**Design Specifications: An Example**

**Stator Design**

**Rotor Design**

**Magnetization Current**

**Reactances and Resistances**

**Electrical Losses and Efficiency**

**Testing of WRIGs**

**Summary**

**References**

**Self-Excited Induction Generators**Introduction

**Principle of Cage-Rotor Induction Machine**

**Self-Excitation: A Qualitative View**

**Steady-State Performance of Three-Phase SEIGs**

**Performance Sensitivity Analysis**

**Pole Changing SEIGs for Variable Speed Operation**

**Unbalanced Operation of Three-Phase SEIGs**

**One Phase Open at Power Grid**

**Three-Phase SEIG with Single-Phase Output**

**Two-Phase SEIGs with Single-Phase Output**

**Three-Phase SEIG Transients**

**Parallel Connection of SEIGs**

**Direct Connection to Grid Transients in Cage-Rotor Induction Generators**

**More on Power Grid Disturbance Transients in Cage-Rotor Induction Generators**

**Summary**

**References**

**Stator-Converter-Controlled Induction Generators**Introduction

**Grid-Connected SCIGs: The Control System**

**Grid Connection and Four-Quadrant Operation of SCIGs**

**Stand-Alone Operation of SCIG**

**Parallel Operation of SCIGs**

**Static Capacitor Exciter Stand-Alone IG for Pumping Systems**

**Operation of SCIGs with DC Voltage-Controlled Output**

**Stand-Alone SCIG with AC Output and Low Rating PWM Converter**

**Dual Stator Winding for Grid Applications**

**Twin Stator Winding SCIG with 50% Rating Inverter and Diode Rectifier**

**Dual Stator Winding IG with Nested Cage Rotor**

**Summary**

**References**

**Automotive Claw-Pole-Rotor Generator Systems**

Introduction

Construction and Principle

Magnetic Equivalent Circuit Modeling

Three-Dimensional Finite Element Method Modeling

Losses, Efficiency, and Power Factor

Design Improvement Steps

Lundell Starter/Generator for Hybrid Vehicles

IPM Claw-Pole Alternator System for More Vehicle Braking Energy Recuperation: A Case Study

Summary

References

**Induction Starter/Alternators for Electric Hybrid Vehicles**Electric Hybrid Vehicle Configuration

**Essential Specifications**

**Topology Aspects of Induction Starter/Alternator**

**ISA Space-Phasor Model and Characteristics**

**Vector Control of ISA**

**DTFC of ISA**

**ISA Design Issues for Variable Speed**

**Summary**

**References**

**Permanent-Magnet-Assisted Reluctance Synchronous Starter/Alternators for Electric Hybrid Vehicles**Introduction

Topologies of PM-RSM

Finite Element Analysis

*dq*Model of PM-RSM

Steady-State Operation at No Load and Symmetric Short Circuit

Design Aspects for Wide Speed Range Constant Power Operation

Power Electronics for PM-RSM for Automotive Applications

Control of PM-RSM for EHV

State Observers without Signal Injection for Motion Sensorless Control

Signal Injection Rotor Position Observers

Initial and Low-Speed Rotor Position Tracking

50/100 kW, 1350–7000 rpm (600 Nm Peak Torque, 40 kg) PM-Assisted Reluctance Synchronous Motor/Generator for HEV: A Case Study

Summary

References

**Switched Reluctance Generators and Their Control**Introduction

**Practical Topologies and Principles of Operation**

**SRG(M) Modeling**

**Flux/Current/Position Curves**

**Design Issues**

**PWM Converters for SRGs**

**Control of SRG(M)s**

**Direct Torque Control of SRG(M)**

**Rotor Position and Speed Observers for Motion-Sensorless Control**

**Output Voltage Control in SRG**

**Double Stator SRG with Segmented Rotor**

**Summary**

**References**

**Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Systems**Introduction

**Practical Configurations and Their Characterization**

**Air Gap Field Distribution, emf, and Torque**

**Stator Core Loss Modeling**

**Circuit Model**

**Circuit Model of PMSG with Shunt Capacitors and AC Load**

**Circuit Model of PMSG with Diode Rectifier Load**

**Utilization of Third Harmonic for PMSG with Diode Rectifiers**

**Autonomous PMSGs with Controlled Constant Speed and AC Load**

**Grid-Connected Variable-Speed PMSG System**

**PM Genset with Multiple Outputs**

**Super-High-Speed PM Generators: Design Issues**

**Super-High-Speed PM Generators: Power Electronics Control Issues**

**Design of a 42 V**

*Battery-Controlled-Output PMSG System*

_{dc}**Methods for Testing PMSGs**

**Grid to Stand-Alone Transition Motion-Sensorless Dual-Inverter Control of PMSG with Asymmetrical Grid Voltage Sags and Harmonics Filtering: A Case Study**

**Note on Medium-Power Vehicular Electric Generator Systems**

**Summary**

**References**

**Transverse Flux and Flux Reversal Permanent Magnet Generator Systems**Introduction

**Three-Phase Transverse Flux Machine: Magnetic Circuit Design**

**TFM: The**

*dq*Model and Steady State

**Three-Phase FR-PM Generator: Magnetic and Electric Circuit Design**

**High Power Factor Vernier PM Generators**

**Summary**

**References**

**Linear Motion Alternators**Introduction

**LMA Principle of Operation**

**PM-LMA with Coil Mover**

**Multipole LMA with Coil Plus Iron Mover**

**PM-Mover LMAs**

**Tubular Homopolar PM Mover Single-Coil LMA**

**Flux Reversal LMA with Mover PM Flux Concentration**

**PM-LMAs with Iron Mover**

**Flux Reversal PM-LMA Tubular Configuration**

**Control of PM-LMAs**

**Progressive-Motion LMAs for Maglevs with Active Guideway**

**Summary**

**References**

## Author(s)

### Biography

**Ion Boldea** is a professor of electrical engineering at the University Politehnica Timişoara, Romania. A life fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Professor Boldea has worked, published, lectured, and consulted extensively on the theory, design, and control of linear and rotary electric motors and generators for more than 40 years.

## Reviews

"... condenses in two volumes the most advanced knowledge on electric generators available in the technical literature. The presentation is clear and progressive. New perspectives are analyzed."

—Fabrizio Marignetti, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Italy"A comprehensive handbook of electric generators that is ideal for graduate-level machines courses."

—Pourya Shamsi, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, USA"... covers the whole range of electric generators, which is unique, and at the same time discusses how to use them with power electronics technology, making the book really worthwhile to read."

—Frede Blaabjerg, Aalborg University, Denmark