1st Edition

Infrared Spectroscopy




ISBN 9789814774789
Published February 1, 2018 by Jenny Stanford Publishing
196 Pages

USD $99.95

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Book Description

It is estimated that there are about 10 million organic chemicals known, and about 100,000 new organic compounds are produced each year. Some of these new chemicals are made in the laboratory and some are isolated from natural products. The structural determination of these compounds is the job of the chemist. There are several instrumental techniques used to determine the structures of organic compounds. These include NMR, UV/visible, infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography. Of all the instrumental techniques listed, infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are the two most popular techniques, mainly because they tend to be less expensive and give us the most structural information.
This book is an introductory text designed to acquaint undergraduate and graduate students with the basic theory and interpretative techniques of infrared spectroscopy. Much of the material in this text has been used over a period of several years for teaching courses in materials characterization and chemical analysis. It presents the infrared spectra of the major classes of organic compounds and correlates the infrared bands (bond vibrations) of each spectrum with the structural features of the compound it represents. This has been done for hydrocarbons, organic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, anhydrides, phenols, amines, and amides. The text discusses the origin of the fragments, techniques, innovations, and applications in infrared spectroscopy. It is interspersed with many illustrations, examples, an adequate but not overwhelming bibliography, and problems for students. It will serve as a lecture text for a one-semester course in infrared spectroscopy or can be used to teach the infrared spectroscopy portion of a broader course in material characterization and chemical analysis.

Table of Contents

Some Fundamentals of Infrared Spectroscopy
Introduction
The Energy of Electromagnetic Radiation
Information That May Be Obtained from the Analysis of Infrared Spectra
Comparison Techniques
Fundamental Vibrations
Non-Fundamental Vibrations
Predicting the Number of Fundamental Vibrations
The Force Constant
Some Theoretical Concepts
Basic Sample Preparation
Other Sampling Techniques
Some Suggestions and Comments on the Interpretation of Infrared Spectra

The Analysis of Infrared Spectra
Hydrocarbons (Straight Chain)
Hydrocarbons (Branched Chain)
Hydrocarbons (Cyclic)
Alkenes
Alkynes
Ethers (Alkyl–Alkyl)
Ethers (Aryl–Alkyl)
Aliphatic Halides
Amines
Ketones and Aldehydes
Alcohols
Organic Acids
Acid Halides
Amides
Esters
Lactones
Anhydrides
Nitriles
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Salts of Carboxylic Acid
The Effects of Chelation on the Carbonyl Absorption
Phosphines, Phosphites, Phosphonates and Phosphates
Thioalcohols and Thiophenols
Silanes
Boranes
Sulfones, Sulfates, Sulfonic Acids (and Their Salts), Sulfites and Sulfoxides

Techniques, Innovations, and Applications in Infrared Spectroscopy
Advances in Infrared Spectroscopy
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)
The Michelson Interferometer
The FTIR Microscope and Microsampling Techniques
Reflective Spectra
Specular or External Reflectance
Grazing Incidence Reflectance
Reflective–Absorption Spectra
Diffuse-Reflectance Spectra
Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR)
Theory of the ATR Cell
Quantitative Infrared Analysis
Combined Thermogravimetric Analysis and FTIR (TG/FTIR)
The TG/FTIR Interface
GC/MS, GC/FTIR and GC/MS/FTIR
The GC/MS and GC/FTIR Interfaces

Problems in Infrared Spectroscopy

Appendix

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Author(s)

Biography

James M. Thompson is emeritus professor at the Department of Chemistry and former chair of the Department of Natural and Physical Sciences at Alabama A&M University. He taught organic chemistry and instrumental methods for many years at the university. He received his PhD in 1975 from the University of Delaware under the supervision of Dr. Richard F. Heck (recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2010). Prof. Thompson’s research interests are in organic chemistry, use of mass spectra, infrared spectra, C-13 and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and structural determination of organic compounds. He performed research for NASA in the area of thermal gravimetric analysis for about 15 years and is a recipient of more than 50 awards and recognitions.