1st Edition

Integrated Quantum Hybrid Systems

ISBN 9789814463829
Published September 4, 2015 by Jenny Stanford Publishing
292 Pages 22 Color & 87 B/W Illustrations

USD $190.00

Prices & shipping based on shipping country


Book Description

Integrated quantum hybrid devices, built from classical dielectric nanostructures and individual quantum systems, promise to provide a scalable platform to study and exploit the laws of quantum physics. On the one hand, there are novel applications, such as efficient computation, secure communication, and measurements with unreached accuracy. On the other, hybrid devices might serve to explore the limits of our understanding of the physical world, that is, the formalism of quantum mechanics. Thus, optical quantum hybrid systems got into the focus of many researchers worldwide.

This book gives a comprehensive yet lucid introduction to the exciting and fast-growing field of integrated quantum hybrid systems. It presents the theoretical and experimental fundamentals and then discusses several recent results and new proposals for future experiments. Illustrated throughout with excellent figures, the book also outlines the way for more complex devices to realize schemes to entangle distant quantum systems on-chip.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

Part I: Fundamentals of Quantum Optics

2. From the Classical to the Quantized Formulation

2.1 Charged Particles and Normal Modes

2.2 Classical Particle and Field Dynamics

2.2.1 Canonical Variables

2.2.2 Hamilton Equations

2.2.3 Coulomb Field

2.2.4 Space Related Variables

2.2.5 Radiation Related Variables

2.2.6 Maxwell Equations

2.2.7 Momentum Related Variables

2.2.8 Dipole Approximation

2.3 The Quantized Hamiltonian

3. Properties of the Quantized Electromagnetic Field

3.1 Field Observables

3.2 Fock States

3.3 Coherent States

3.4 Quasi Continuum and Density of States

4. Light-Matter Interaction

4.1 Second Order Perturbation Theory

4.1.1 Absorbtion

4.1.2 Emission

4.1.3 Photon Detection and Statistics

4.1.4 Excitation of Two Level Systems

4.1.5 Total Spontaneous Emission Rate

4.1.6 Steady State of the Two Level System

4.1.7 Dynamic Behavior of Two Level Systems

4.1.8 Photon Statistics and Two Level Systems

4.1.9 Three Level Systems

4.2 Coherent Interactions

4.2.1 Optical Bloch Equations

4.2.2 Analogy to Spins in Magnetic Fields

4.2.3 Steady State Solution

4.2.4 Rabi Oscillations

4.2.5 BlochVector

4.2.6 Undamped Rabi Oscillations with Detuning

4.2.7 StaticDecoherence

4.2.8 Measurement Induced Decoherence

4.2.9 The Quantum Zeno Effect

4.3. Three Level Systems

4.3.1 The Λ-System

4.3.2 Stimulated Raman Transition

4.4 Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

4.4.1 Cavity Modes

4.4.2 Jaynes-Cummings Model

4.4.3 One Photon Bloch Equations

4.4.4 Vacuum Rabi Splitting

4.4.5 Vacuum Rabi Oscillations and Purcell Effect

Part II: Quantum Systems for Integration into Hybrid Devices

5. Quantum Dots

5.1 Quantum Dot Wavefunction and Level Structure

5.2 Experiments with Single Quantum Dots

5.2.1 Single Photon Source

5.2.2 Entangled Photon Source

5.2.3 Spin Qubit

6. Single Molecules

6.1 Fundamentals of Single Molecules

6.2 Experiments with Single Molecules

6.2.1 Room Temperature Single Photon Source

6.2.2 Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance

7. Color Centers in Diamond

7.1 Nanodiamond

7.2 Silicon-Vacancy Center in Diamond

7.3 Nitrogen-Vacancy Center in Diamond

7.3.1 Observation of Single Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers

7.3.2 Excited State Lifetime and Spectral Properties

7.4 Spectral Diffusion

7.4.1 Techniques for Measuring Spectral Diffusion

7.4.2 The Theory of Photon Correlation Inter- ferometry

7.4.3 Measurement of Spectral Diffusion by Photon Correlation

7.4.4 Results of Spectral Diffusion Measurements

7.5 Spin Physics of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers

7.5.1 Orbitals and Triplet Levels

7.5.2 Singlet Levels and Spin State Detection

7.5.3 Optical Detection of Magnetic Resonances

7.5.4 Coherent Spin Manipulation

7.6 Simplified Model and Effect of Strain on Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers

7.7 Demonstration of the Quantum Zeno Effect

Part III: Optical Microstructures

8. Electrodynamics in Media

8.1 Maxwell’s Equations in Dielectric Media

8.2 Linear Isotropic Dielectrics

8.2.1 Electric Field per Photon

8.2.2 The Classical Wave Equation

8.3 Spontaneous Emission in Uniform Dielectrics

8.4 Electrodynamics as an Eigenvalue Problem

8.5 Symmetries in Dielectric Strucutures

8.5.1 Mirror Symmetries

8.5.2 Translation Symmetries

8.6 Total Internal Reflection

9. Immersion Microscopy

9.1 Liquid Immersion Microscopy

9.2 Solid Immersion Microscopy

10. Index Guiding Structures

10.1 Guided Modes in Infinite Dielectric Slabs

10.1.1 Symmetry Considerations

10.1.2 Mode Guiding

10.2 Strip Waveguides and Fibers

10.3 Whispering Gallery Modes in Disk Resonators

10.3.1 Fabrication of Disk Resonators

10.3.2 Measurement of the Mode Structure of Disk Resonators

11. Photonic Crystals

11.1 Introduction to Photonic Crystals

11.2 Photonic Crystal Slabs

11.2.1 Geometry and Band Structure

11.2.2 Fabrication

11.3 Photonic Crystal Waveguides

11.4 Photonic Crystal Cavities

11.4.1 L3 Cavity

11.4.2 Optimized L3 Cavity

11.4.3 Modulated Waveguide Cavities

11.5 Experiments with Photonic Crystal Cavities

11.5.1 Analysis by Intrinsic Fluorescence

11.5.2 Analysis by Polarization Properties

11.6 Tuning of Photonic Crystal Cavitites

12. Applications of Photonic Crystal Cavities

12.1 Narrow-Band Optical Filter

12.2 Refractive Index Measurement in Ultra Small Volumes

12.2.1 Experimental Method

12.2.2 Temperature Dependency of the Refractive Index of GaP

12.2.3 Influence of the Temperature on the Quality Factor

12.3 Thermo-Optical Switching

12.3.1 Theoretical Predictions

12.3.2 Experimental Implementation

Part IV: Coupling of Quantum System to Optical Microstructures

13. Weak Coupling Regime

13.1 Quantum Dots

13.2 Color Centers in Diamond

13.2.1 Top-Down Integration

13.2.2 Bottom-Up Integration

13.3 Applications of NV Centers in the Weak Coupling Regime

14. Strong Coupling

14.1 Strong Coupling Regime with Quantum Dots

14.2 Strong Coupling with NVs in Diamond

15. Cavity Enhanced Entanglement

15.1 Probabilistic Entanglement

15.1.1 A Heralded High Fidelity Entanglement Scheme

15.1.2 Heralded Entanglement with NV Centers

15.2 Deterministic Entanglement

15.2.1 The Model System

15.2.2 Effective Hamiltonian Approach

15.2.3 Lindblad Approach

15.2.4 Influence of the Detunings and Spectral Diffusion

15.2.5 Inuence of Q-factor and Cavity Coupling

16. Conclusions and Outlook

16.1 Summary and Conclusions

16.2 Outlook


Own Contributions


List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Abbreviations


View More



Janik Wolters studied physics at Technische Universität zu Berlin, Germany, and Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain. He worked in the Quantum Optics Group at Institut d’Optique, Paris, France, and in the Nano-Optics Group at Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany, with an Elsa-Neumann Scholarship of the state of Berlin. His prize-winning research comprises theoretical solid state physics, photonic crystals, quantum optics, single emitters, nanomanipulation techniques, and quantum hybrid systems.